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|Title: ||On the emergence of toroidal flux tubes: general dynamics and comparisons with the cylinder model|
|Authors: ||MacTaggart, David|
Hood, Alan W.
|Affiliation: ||University of Abertay Dundee. School of Computing & Engineering Systems|
|Keywords: ||Magnetic fields|
|Issue Date: ||Nov-2009|
|Publisher: ||EDP Sciences|
|Type: ||Journal Article|
|Rights: ||This is the published version of this article. Reproduced with permission from the publisher. Published version (c)EDP Sciences, available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200912930 and http://www.aanda.org/|
|Citation: ||MacTaggart, D. and Hood, A.W. 2009. On the emergence of toroidal flux tubes: general dynamics and comparisons with the cylinder model. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 507(2): pp.995-1004. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200912930|
|Abstract: ||Aims. In this paper we study the dynamics of toroidal flux tubes emerging from the solar interior, through the photosphere and into the
corona. Many previous theoretical studies of flux emergence use a twisted cylindrical tube in the solar interior as the initial condition.
Important insights can be gained from this model, however, it does have shortcomings. The axis of the tube never fully emerges as
dense plasma becomes trapped in magnetic dips and restrains its ascent. Also, since the entire tube is buoyant, the main photospheric
footpoints (sunspots) continually drift apart. These problems make it difficult to produce a convincing sunspot pair.We aim to address
these problems by considering a different initial condition, namely a toroidal flux tube.
Methods. We perform numerical experiments and solve the 3D MHD equations. The dynamics are investigated through a range of
initial field strengths and twists.
Results. The experiments demonstrate that the emergence of toroidal flux tubes is highly dynamic and exhibits a rich variety of
behaviour. In answer to the aims, however, if the initial field strength is strong enough, the axis of the tube can fully emerge. Also, the
sunspot pair does not continually drift apart. Instead, its maximum separation is the diameter of the original toroidal tube.|
|Appears in Collections:||Computing & Engineering Systems Collection|
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