Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol in Dundee, UK
PM10 was sampled on weekdays and at weekends in Dundee, a coastal urban area in the UK, for 1 year. The chemical compositions of 59 PM10 samples were analysed by using wet chemical analysis methods. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyse metal elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb) while a high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse ions (SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+ and K+). The meteorological factors which may affect the concentration and chemical composition of PM10 have been discussed. The possible sources for PM10 were analysed by comparing contributions of wind aspects with wind direction frequencies. The concentration of PM10 in Dundee is low in comparison with other known sites around the world. There are no obvious differences between concentrations and chemical composition of weekday and weekend samples. The impact of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations and chemical composition is not immediately apparent. The European continent is to be a major source of SO42−, NO3− and NH4+. However, Ca and K+ originate from different sources. The loss reaction of particulate Cl− is stronger for marine aerosol from the North Sea than that from the Atlantic Ocean. The trace elements with complex sources originate mainly from local emissions.