Single-shot longitudinal bunch profile measurements at FLASH using electro-optic detection: experiment, simulation, and validation.
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At the superconducting linac of FLASH at DESY, we have installed an electro-optic (EO) experiment for single- shot, non-destructive measurements of the longitudinal electric charge distribution of individual electron bunches. The time profile of the electric bunch field is electro- optically encoded onto a chirped titanium-sapphire laser pulse. In the decoding step, the profile is retrieved either from a cross-correlation of the encoded pulse with a 30 fs laser pulse, obtained from the same laser (electro- optic temporal decoding, EOTD), or from the spectral intensity of the transmitted probe pulse (electro-optic spectral decoding, EOSD). At FLASH, the longitudinally compressed electron bunches have been measured during FEL operation with a resolution of better than 50 fs. The electro-optic process in gallium phosphide was numerically simulated using as input data the bunch shapes determined with a transverse-deflecting RF structure. In this contribution, we present electro-optically measured bunch profiles and compare them with the simulation.